Habba-han; Al-Hal (Arabic), and Al-Hail (Arabic). Cardamom; cardamon. Elettaria cardamomum (L.)Maton.

Aromatic pungent spice, imported from the India and Australia. Seeds, fruits, and capsule used as spice, carminative, and flavouring agent.

Habbat Al-'Ain.  Cassia absus L. and Chamaecrista absus (L.)Irwin & Barneby.

Black heart-shaped seed with a bright yellow centre. Decoction of crushed seeds used in treating inflammed eyes.

Habbat Al-Muluk. Croton oil seed. Jatropha curcas L. and Croton sp.

Shrub (garden hedge plant). Seeds crushed and taken with milk or water; outer covering poisonous. Used in treating loin (renal) pain, as laxative, purgative, detergent and oil source. It is a known poison.

Haikabiet; Sharoba; Gulum, and Murdu.  Capparis tomentosa L.

Prickly shrub. Fruits, leaves, root, stem (dried and powdered), and bark, alleged to be medicines for man and animal. It is animal food which is sometimes poisonous to camels. It is also used in treating leprosy, syphilis, and wounds.

Hajar Maghar.  

Constituents are not identified. Used mainly to treat inflammation of the eye.

Halawa Tahniya. Sesame sweet cake.

It is a food of high calorific value which is considered as lactogenic and tonic. It is used as also as a poultice.

Handal; Duab (Nuer), and Sinab (Hadandawa). Bitter apple; Bitter cucumber; Colocynth. Citrulus colocynthis (L.)Schrad.; Cucumis colocynthis L., and Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad.

Desert and semi-desert annual wild herb, prostrate or climbing. Seeds used for making tar with an ingenious technique. Fruit's and seed's bulb sometimes the whole fruit is put on sole of foot, scarred or not, as laxative; garlic is added to decoction of root for the treatment of snake bite; also used in making tar (qutran), as anti-moth, anti-scorpion stings, anti-snake bite, anti-lice and in the treatment of diarrhoea.

Haraz.  Acacia albida Del. and Faidherbia albida (Del.) (Synonymous).

A local wild tree used in treating diarrhoea.

Harhar.  Lonchocarpus laxiflorus Guill. & Perr.

A deciduous tree. Bark used as anthelmintic.

Harjal. Argel. Solenostemma argel Heyne.

A desert wild shrub that grows in Sudan. Leaves used alone or with sheeh in indigestion and flatulence. Used in treating epigastric pain, joints affections, fever, common cold, headache, loin pain,  puerperal fever, nusea, indigestion, as a laxative, purgative, carminative, abortifacient, anti-spasmodic, and beverage.

Harmal. Peganum; wild rue; African rue. Peganum harmala L.

A cultivated perennial plant, imported from Egypt and India. Dried seeds, leaves and root used as anthelmintic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, and as an amulet.

Hashab.  Acacia laeta R.Br. ex Benth.

Tree gum used in water purification.

Hashish; Bangu, and Kamanga. Cannabis; hemp. Cannabis sativa L.

A plant cultivated in Sudan against the law. Leaves, mass, sweets: snuffed or smoked. W. Beam discovered a chemical test for hashish: Fourth Report,  Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories, B, Khartoum 1911: 25. Used as a habbit-forming plant, and aphrodisiac.

Haza.  Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.)A.Juss.

Small plant. Flowers, leaves and stem (decoction) used in treating loin (renal) pain, flatulence and colic, indigestion, and as an abortifacient, laxative, purgative, and an agent to expel evil spirits.

Hazambal (Kasala).  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Tree root used in treating chest complaints.

Hernab (Hadandawa).  Carissa edulis Vahl. and Carissa pubescens A.DC.

Wild shrub or small tree. Root (worn, sniffed or burnt); stem used as anti-dote for snake bites, as fumigation ingredient, and in treatment of headache, sunstroke, fever, joints affections, fungal infections, and to expet evil spirits, and for water purification, and as an inhalant (tas'it) in psychiatric disorders.

Higlig; Sassud (Hadendowa); Shashot (Hadendowa); Rorak (Jebel Daier); Tira (Dilling); Kiri (al-Liri); Tan (Dinka); Tu (Shulluk); lalobe (fruits), and Faith (fruits) (Nuer). Thorn tree; Desert date. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.)Del.; Balanites roxhurghii Planch., and Ximenia aegyptiaca  L.

A semi-desert wild tree that grows in Sudan. Fruits (7 unripe fruits sucked for abortion); root; bark used; Masalit throw powdered wood in small ponds for poisoning fish before catching them; fat extracted from kernel of fruit in Darfur; Leaves, frayed twigs are used as tooth brushes. Plant could be contraceptive, laxative, anti-bilharzial, emetic, detergent, aids healing of wounds, fumigation ingredient, an agent of water purification and a source of salt, and oil.

Hilailij.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Imported from India through Egypt. Fruits and seeds removed and used with senna as laxative or prugative.

Hilba and Um Ushush. Fenugreek; fenugreek seeds. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Trigonella occulta Del. ex DC.

Seeds crushed and made into madidat hilba (fenugreek porridge) or dried leaves used in treating epigastric pain, joints affections, abdominal disorders, dysentery, as lactogenic, poultice, restorative agent, beverage, food item, tonic, emollient, spice, in water purification, and as fumigation ingredient.

Hillaiw and Simaima.  Grewia flavescens Juss.

A pubescent shrub. Root used in treating tuberculosis.

Hilu Mur.  

Fermented drink consumed as beverage during Ramadan (Fasting Month). Solid brown crumbled sheets or flakes made of dura, ginger, ghurungal, cinamon, coriander, cumin, black cumin, black pepper, cloves, hilba, habba-han, dates gruel, decoction of karkade. All are fermented and baked together. For consumption, hilu mur is soaked in water for 2 hours, strained and sweetened. Contents: 6.1% moisture, 3.7% lactic acid, 14.26% protein, 3.45% ash, 31% sugar, with lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid as major end products.

Himmaid.  Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich).

A glabrous tree. Leaves and bark used in treatment of abdominal disorders, and diarrhoea.

Hinna. Henna, mignonette tree. Lawsonia alba L. and Lawsonia inermis L.

A tree or shrub cultivated in Sudan, powder imported from India, red or reddish-orange pigment made of its leaves for dyeing the nails and hair and for decorating skin of feet and hands. Dried leaves usually powdered, water or vinegar added to make paste for topical use for cooling skin in fevers, for treatment of urinary tract infection, and for treatment of leprosy, headache, flatulence, colic, and pellagra.

Hommos and Kabkabaik. chick-pea. Cicer arietinum L.

Seeds used mainly as food.

Humruk (Hadandawa).  Rumex vesicarius L.

Annual herb. Whole plant used as tonic.

Hurab Al-Hawsa.  Acanthospermum hispidium  D.C.

A local weed. Whole plant or root used in treating bilharzia, and headache.


Food usually given to pregnant women and children in ceremonial occasions. Dura and malt flour are fermented and made as balls. Sometimes honey is added to malt flour (hussuat 'asal) and then boiled. Fermentation may give an intoxicating drink; it is usually taken by men and women of religion.