Dabalab.  Flueggea virosa (Willd.)Voigt and Flueggea microcarpa Blume.

A Shrub of moist grounds. Bark used as astringent and fish poison.

Dabkar.  Crateva adansonii DC.

Wood and stem.


Marisa brewing by-product. Used mainly as animal food.

Dagra.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Leaves of a herb used as juice to treat inflammation of the eye.

Dahasir.  Indigofera oblongifolia Forssk.


Daiu.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root (of a tree) used decoction in treating syphilis.


A fermented alcoholic beverage in northern Sudan. Dates are incubated in water for spontaneous fermentation for 3-4 days, contents strained to give dakkai.

Dalaib. Fan palm. Borassus aethiopum Mart.

Leaves and root powder mixed with shea butter is used to treat bronchitis and chest infection; palm wine is considered a tonic: seed kernel. Used also for water filteration, in treating eye inflammation, chest complaints, as tonic, aphrodisiac, and food.

Dalli.  Trianthema salsoloides Fenzl ex Oliv.

Hairy herb. Whole herb (ashes). Ashy product of repelling odour. Used to treat swellings, fever, and as toothache Analgesic.

Dambaza.  Physostigma mesopondicum Taub.

Pubescent climber. Tuber used in treating dysentery, and as laxative and purgative.

Damin 'Ashara and Min Addak. 'A guarantee of 10'. Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root worn or charred and used for cautery, and as anti-dote for snake bites and as an a amultet.

Damin Khamsa. 'A guarantee of 5'. Unidentified taxonomic name.

A highly trusted root worn around neck or arm, or charred and used for cautery as anti-dote for snake bites, and as an amulet.

Damm Al-Ikhwa and Damm Al-Akhawain.  Daemonorops sp.

Used in the treatment  of liver and loin (renal) pain.

Damm Halloof. Wild hog blood.

Applied externally or taken internally in the treatment of leprosy.

Damm Kharoof. Sheep blood.

Applied externally or taken internally in treating leprosy.

Damsisa; Sheeh; Diqn Al-Shaikh (Arabic); Afartamasia (Arabic); Afsintin (Arabic); Sheeh Roumi (Arabic); Sheeh 'Iraqi (Arabic), and Sheeh Khurasani (Arabic). Wormwood; santonica; absinthe. Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso.

A wild small tree that grows in Sudan and well known by diqn al-shaikh (old man's beard). Leaves: powder or decoction used treating abdominal colic; with harjal in dyspepsia and flatulence; rubbed on teething gums. Also used in treating diabetes mellitus, renal colic, indigestion, gonorrhoea, loin (renal) pain, wounds, swellings, urine retention, as fumigation ingredient, laxative, purgative, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic, menstruation regulator.

Darfur Remedy.  Marsdenia rubicunda (K.Schum.)N.E.Br. and Dregea rubicunda K.Schum.

Leaves of a plant local to Darfur Region used to treat flatulence and colic. It is known to be poisonous.


Scented powder usually applied ritually to the head of the bride and bridegroom, and the circumcised. Constituents: mahlab, qurunful, sandalwood, and a variety of liquid perfumes. It is made in three layers: first the head is painted with karkar (scented oil), second mahlab, and third powdered sandalwood are applied. A handkerchief is wound around the head to keep the paste as a crown.

Daroat.  Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels.

A glabrous tree: root; bark; leaves, used to treat inflammation of the eye and as fumigation ingredient.

Deina bana.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Small plant leaves and stem used in treating sysphilis.

Denobia.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Tree root (decoction) used in treating sysphilis.

Dihin Ghanam. Goat's butter.

Snuffed for headache treatment.

Dihn Abu-Al-Hussain. Fox's fat.

Used to treat dabas.

Dihn Al-Saq. Bone marrow.

Used to treat eye inflammation.

Dilka. 'Massage'.

Cosmetic and health restorative paste mainly applied in massage; it is called dilka murra (bitter) if unscented and hulwa (sweet) if scented. Constituents: dura paste enriched with fumes and vapours of burnt talh wood, klait wood, shaff wood, and paste made of powdered mahlab, qurunful, dofr, and sandal wood (this mixture is called al-marbou') and if luban and simbil are added (then called al-makhmous). Also contains varying amounts of musk, jilad, and zabad to make special dilka, and sugar, liquid perfume, zait al-ni'am, surratiya, zait sandaliya, majmou', and baida may be added; the paste is used with oil for body massage; also a piece is rubbed on the teething gum to soothe it. Unmarried girls use dilkat-burtuqal (orange paste) only. Dilka is used as an adjuvant to joint affection treatment regimes, and sometimes in treating diarrhoea.

Dodary. Fermented offal.

Animal large intestine stuffed with fat, tied at both ends and left to ferment and dry under cooking smoke.


Dried cartilaginous remains of shell-fish. Used in treating fever, wasting disease, and as fumigation ingredient, fertility symbol, and as an amulet.

Dome.  Hyphaene thebaica (L.)Mart.

A wild fruit. Used in treating inflammed eyes.

Doodmaly and Baigetu.  

Fermented and dried caterpillars, later fried or crushed and made stew.

Dukhkhan. Ritual fumigation. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. and Capparis aphylla Heyne ex Roth.

Constituents: a variety of wood viz. tundub used for fumigation for personal hygiene, as anti-bacterial, and insect repellent. 'Usfur and kurkum (turmeric) are added sometimes to give the skin a yellow colour.

Dukhun. Bulrush millet; pearl millet. Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. f.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.



An alcoholic beverage in Equatoria and Bahr al-Ghazal regions. Prepared by fermentation of bees' honey by special yeast usually kept secret in families.

Dumou' Al-Baqara. Cow's tears.

Tears of a cow infected with cow pox or recently dead of the disease are instilled in the nostrils of healthy cows as a method of prevention by variolation.

Dura. Great millet; sorghum. Sorghum vulgare Pers.; Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench cv. Feterita, and Sorghum bicolor var. caudatum Stapf cv. Feterita.

The principal cultivated staple cereal of the Sudan, grains are used as bread, balila or roasted as farik. Used  a surgical dressing agent, as fertility symbol.

Dura Shami and Aish Rif. Maize grains; Corn; Maize. Zea mays L.

Made as bread, balila or roasted. Used in treating syphilis.