Bafra; Babwa (sweet variety), and Bazmangi (bitter) (Zande). Cassava (sweet and bitter varieties). Manihot utilissima Pohl and Manihot esculenta Crantz.

A cultivated tall woody herb with tuberous roots. Tuber (poisoning through cyanogenesis); frequently consumed during famines.

Bahr Al-Ghazal Fish Poisons.  Paullinia pinnata L.

Climber seeds; root. Used as fish poison.

Baid Ni'am. Ostrich egg.

Used as an amulet.


Oil perfume extracted from Mahlab. Used as a perfume especially in massage.


'Fumigation paper' with astrological formulae written on it before folding. Burnt alone or with frakincense and ambergris. It is burnt to drive away the evil eye and evil spirits.

Bakhur Al-Taiman. 'The twin's incense'.

Constituents: shebb, irq alali, qarad (7 pods), ain al-'arous, kasbara, cammoun, luban ladin, ghasoul, fakouk, si'da, murr higazi. Used as a panacea fumigation for all disease that is caused by the evil eye.

Bakhur Al-Tumbura. 'Tumbura incense'.

Constituents: 'Uda, sandal, jawli, luban, mastica, dam'a sayila, kafour tayyar, mahlabiyya, surratiyya, majmou', liquid perfume. Used in divination related to zar tumbura rituals.

Bakhur Al-Zar. 'Zar incense'.

Constituents: 'udiya, luban jawi, luban 'adani, luban, sandal, mastika, dam'a sayila, fakouk, ghasoul,  murr higazi, perfumes. Used for fumigation in zar rituals.

Balana.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

A plant introduced and used by Fellata (Nigerians). Root (decoction) used in treating fits and sunstroke.

Bambai. Sweet Potato. Ipomoea batatas.

Tubers used for food.

Bamia; Waika; Dweinde (Nuba), and Foma (Dinka). Okra. Hibiscus esculentus L. and Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)Moench.

Fruits and leaves known as  waika when dried, bamia leaves are known as sabaroag, all of which are made into mulah (gravy). Also used as a poultice, in treating leprosy and in water management.

Banga; Benge, and Bengue.

An Azande ordeal poison of debatable nature, probably composed of a certain plant and minerals: strychnine-like alkaloid and brownish-red oxide of iron. The plant involved is possibly a creeper obtained from the wooded region south of the Uelle river in Belgian Congo. Part used is probably root. Used in divination by the Azande, and as fowl poison.

Banjar and Salij. Beetroot; Beet; Chard. Beta vulgaris var cicla.

Any of several widely cultivated plants. Leave eaten as greens, and the bulbus root eaten as a vegetable.

Baqdounis. Parsley. Petroselinum crispum.

Whole plant.

Baroud. Gun powder.

Used as abortifacient.

Barqouq. Plum. Prunus domestica.


Basal. Onion. Allium cepa L.

Fruits; seeds; cover used in treating disease of the chest, skin, throat, eye, ear, and nose, in treating fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, and gonorrhoea, as spice, food, and in rituals.

Basal Al-Kilab.  Scilla lilacina (Fenzl)Bak.

Tuber used as fish poison.

Basham Al-'Abied; Tirioti (Mandari), and Ulumba Banda).  Grewia bicolor Juss. and Grewia mellis.

A plant used in administering oath in Yilede and Kudu secret societies of the Banda tribe. Bark (boiled with turbid water to purify it), leaves are used by Banda tribe for making local salt (kombo).

Batatis. Potato. Solanum tuberosum.

Tubers used for food.

Battikh. Water mellon. Citrullus vulgaris Eckl. & Zeyh. and Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.)Mansf.

Fruits, seed kernel, and root used as analgesic poultice.

Bayad Al-Baid. Egg white.

Egg white used to treat the inflammed eye.

Bazingan. Aubergine; Egg plant. Solanum melanogena L.

Vegetable used for food and as a ritual item.


Inhaled by vagrant kids for 'kicks'.

Bisilla. Garden pea. Pisum sativum L.

Peas used as food and in water purification.

Bizr Kittan. Linseed. Linum usitatissimum  L.

Imported from India. Seeds used as poultice.

Bizr Qatna. Plantahgo afra L.

Seeds used like rashad in water with sugar for treatment of dysentery .

Boal al Naqa. Camel urine.

Increases labour contraction in women.

Boware (Nigerian).  Unidentified taxonomic name.

A root imported and used by Fellata (Nigerian) used as decoction and drunk. Alleged to aid metamorphosis and helps in communicating with the spirit world.

Buda.  Striga hermontheca Benth.

Root (decoction) used in treating leprosy.

Bun and Bun Habashi. Coffee beans. Coffea arabica L.

Imported from Ethiopia and Kenya. Berries used as styptic, beverage, anti-spasmodic, in treating diarrhoea and chest complaints.

Burtuqal. Orange. Citrus sinensis L.

Fruit used as food, and in treating abdominal disorders.