Sabar and Sabbar. Aloes. Aloe perryi Bak.

A bitter plant imported from Middle East countries and India. Leaves mass moistened with water or coffee, and used in treating chest complaints, as laxative, and purgative.


Used in treating hypertension.


Bark of a tree imported from Abyssinia and used in the preparation of asalob.

Safar Al-Baid. Egg yolk.

Used in treating tonsillitis.

Safoufat Al-Usul.  

Constituents: Habbat al-Muluk etc.

Saikaran; Tarmf (Dilling); Mekayyis (Hadandawa), and Simm al-Far. Thorn-Apple; datura. Datura stramonium L.; Datura muticus L.; Datura metel L.; Withania somnifera (L.)Dunal; Rogeria adenophylla J.Gray ex Del.; Physalis somnifera L., and Hyoscyamus muticus L.

A wild gravel soil undershrub. All parts espicially seeds (crushed and mixed with food or marisa), stem bark, and root used in chronic abdominal pain. A known arrow and lances poison, aphrodisiac, narcotic, poultice, and diuretic. It is also used in treating diarrhoea.

Sakan. Soot.

Main constituent of 'amar (native black ink).

Sala'la'; Katut (Hadandawa), and Tekwatko (Hadandawa).  Cissus quadrangula L.

A climber plant. Root, stem and whole plant used as stomachic, poultice, fish poison, in treating saddle-galls, joints affections, as arrow poison, and anti-dote against scropion bite.

Salah Mawgood.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root obtained from southern Kordofan and used in treating disease caused by the evil eye, to avert evil spirits, and as fumigation ingredient.

Saljam.  Acacia gerrardii Benth. var. gerrardii and Acacia hebecladoides Harms (syn.).

A local low land tree. Leaves used in treating abdominal disorders.

Samin. ghee.

Clarified butter, native butter oil, ghee. Used as a carrier for medicinal ingredients, for local application or internal administration. Used in treating mental illness, syphilis, and joints affections.

Samq Abu-Baka.  Gardenia thunbergia L.f.

Resin and used as laxative, purgative.

Sananir. Common groundsel. Senecio vulgaris L.

Imported from Jedda to Sawakin town. Annual herb: seeds and fruit, applied as a smooth watery paste to fontanelle of young children and allowed to run down to chin. Draws the teeth down. Used also in treating diarrhoea.

Sandal. Sandal wood. Santalum album L.

Imported from India as fumigation ingredient and an element in local perfume.

Sandaliya. Sandal wood oil.

Imported from India. Alcoholic perfume extracted and used for fumigation and as perfume ingredient.

Sandarus. Sandarac. Callitris quadrivalvis Vent.

Imported from India. Mass used for religious ritual fumigation.

Saqam Fakka.  

Recipe of Shaikh al-Tayib Wad al-Marhi. Constituents: Simbil, Qurunful, Mahlab, Filfil, Kohl, powdered together and used in treating inflammation of the eye.

Sarih and Sha'ar Al-Banat.  Maerua crassifolia Forssk.

A local spinescent branched shrub. Parts used: Branches and  root used in treating tropical ulcers, joints affections, and in water purification, and fumigation.

Sawad Al-'Aish. Dura mould.

Used in treating cough.

Sedam (Hadandawa).  Lavandula coronopifolia Ppoir.

Fragrant perennial herb. Used whole as astringent.

Senna; Senna Makka, and Senna Senna. Senna. Cassia acutifolia Del.; Cassia senna L.; Cassia obovata Collad.; Cassia augustifolia Vahl; Senna alexandrina Miller, and Senna italica subsp. italica.

A wild and cultivated undershrub that grows in Sudan. Pods, leaves, and seeds (known also as jalajil) are used in treating abdominal disorders, as laxative and purgative, in treatment of burns, wounds and as a marisa additive.

Sha'aloab.  Leptadenia arborea (Forsk.).

Tomentose twining shrub. Stem and root used in treating gonorrhoea, swellings, and nose disease.

Sha'ar. Hair.

Used as fumigation ingredient.

Sha'ar Fil. Elephant's hair.

Used as amulet.

Sha'ar Zaraf. Girrafe's hair.

Used as amulet.

Sha'ir. Barley. Hordeum sativum pers. and Hordeum vulgare L.

Grains used for bread-making or roasted, and as diuretic.

Sha'ir Hindi.  Scleropyrum wallichianum (Wight & Arn.)Arn. and Scleropyrum pentandrum  (Dennst.)Mabberley.

Fruits imported from India used in treating urine retention, liver pain and chest complaints.

Shabb. Alum.

White Aluminium Sulphate crystals (powdered or dissolved) obtained from Egypt. Brought mostly by iron workers and Fellata. Used in treating inflammation, gonorrhoea, fever, leprosy, infection of the eye, as toothache analgesic, astringent, fumigation ingredient, and an agent for water purification.

Shai. Tea. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze.

Leaves used as fumigation ingredient, in treating fever, cough, eye infection, as beverage, anti-dote against scropion bite, and as ritual item.

Shai Al-Misairiyya.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Tea of Misairiyya tribe of Kordofan.

Shairi.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root (worn or powdered and snuffed) used in treating diseases caused by the evil eye, protects against giddiness, and as an aphrodisiac.

Shajar Al-Rawwaq; Anid (Dinka); Shajar Al-Zaki, and Ben. Horse radish; Sudan drumstick tree. Moringa oleifera Lam.; Moringa pergrina (Forssk.)Fiori, and  Moringa pterygosperma Gaerth.

Seeds used as agents for water purification and as a source for oil.

Shajar al-Sim; Al-Sabbar; Um lebeina; Shajar al-Zaraf; Shajar al-Dud, and Haid (Handandawa). Candelabra tree. Euphorbia calycina N.E.Br.; Euphorbia candelabrum Kotschy; Euphorbia veinifica Kotschy; Euphorbia aegyptiaca Boiss., and Euphorbia abyssinica J.F. Gmel.

Juice of a shrub used as arrow and lances poison, in homicide and as laxative and purgative.

Shajarat Al-Nar. 'Fire tree'. Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root used in treating syphilis, leprosy and wounds.

Sham' Al-Nahal. Bees' wax.

Used in dressing wounds.

Shamar. Fennel. Foeniculum vulgare Miller.

An aromatic shrub, leaves and seeds used for seasoning. Parts used: whole; fruits; seeds; leaves as carminative, spice, and in treating diarrhoea.

Shammam and Gawwoon. Sweet melon. Cucumis melo L.

Creeper or climber that grows in Sudan. Parts used: fruit; seeds; root (emetic and purgative). Used as diuretic, in treating allergy, as laxative, purgative and emetic.

Shams Al-Ma'rouf.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

A tree that grows in Darfur, its root used as aphrodisiac.


A fermented mild alcoholic beverage brewed from date with different spices e.g., cinnamon and ginger.


Dried striped meat of different origins, sometime slightly fermented.

Sharrab Al-Shamsain (Um Rawwaba).  

Named after snake M. Cordofanensis, also its branches follow the rising and the setting sun, and hence the name. Root used as an anti-dote against snake bites.

Shatta; Filfil Ahmar, and Raria (Azande). Red chilli; chili; chile; red pepper. Capsicum frutescens L.

Extremely pungent and stimulant. Cultivated plant. Parts used: fruits (dried); leaves; seeds; pods. Used as rubifacient, irritant, appetizer, spice, stomachic, in treating syphilis, leprosy, wounds, tuberculosis, spleen enlargement, as poultice, fumigation ingredient, toothache analgesic.


Constituents: wadak, zait, qarad, shebb all simmer and a is soaked in cotton wool as warm suppositories. Used in treatng diarrhoea.

Sherkaila Root No. 2.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root used in treating syphilis.

Sherkaila Root No. 3.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root used in treating burning micturition and gonorrhoea.


A favourite additive of food in Nuba Moutains. Sesame seeds roasted dry, crushed into paste to which 'atroun or waikab added, oil separated and product incubated for 14 days. It remains soft for months because of oil content. Used like kawal.

Shihhait.  Combretum aculeatum Vent.

A local grey tomentose shrub. Root used as laxative, purgative poultice, and in treating tuberculosis.

Shom (Dinka); Kuar (Nuba), and Joghan. African ebony; Jackal berry. Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC.

Parts used: fruit bulb; seeds.

Shou; Shou Habashi, and Kousso.  Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce)J.Gmel.

Grown and imported from Ethiopia. Root (powdered and drunk with sour milk) and used as anthelminthic.

Si'da and Dis. Nut grass. Cyperus rotundus L.; Typha angustata Bory & Chaub.; Typha angustifolia L., and Typha domingensis Pers.

Wild common grass. Parts used: whole; tubers; root, as astringent, anthelmintic, emmenogogue, stomachic, diuretic, aromatic, and in treating diarrhoea, and as an agent for water purification.

Siha.  Blepharis persica (Burm.f.)Kuntze.

Seeds used for water purification.

Sijal.  Veronica adoensis Schultz. Bip.

A pubescent herb. Root used in treating abdominal disorders, as anti-spasmodic, and anti-dote against scropion bites.

Sim Ahmar; Shajar al-Sim (Baqqara); Darag (Togale); Narurai (al-Liri), and Tumu (Kadugli).  Adenium honghel A.DC. and Adenium obesum (Forssk.)Roem. & Schultes.

Shrub with bright red flowers. Juice used as arrow poison and toxin.

Simbil and Sinbil. Spikenard. Andropogon nardus L. and Cymbopogon nardus (L.)Rendle.

Small shrub imported from India. Leaves, branches (decoction) used in fever, anti-inflammatory and demulcent.

Simsa'a.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Literally means 'poison of an hour'. Used as an agent of homicide.

Simsim. Sesame. Sesamum indicum DC.; Sesamum alatum Thonn., and Sesamum orientale L.

A herb cultivated in Sudan. Seed oil is used for food, zait al-walad is famous for treating chest complaints, and as laxative.

Sinan Al-Hatab. Wood resin.

Prevents keloid formation.

Sinfab.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Mixed with dates and samin as laxative and purgative.

Soun.  Capparis micrantha A. Rich.

A much-branched shrub. Root used as anti-spasmodic, and analgesic for toothache.

Soungood (Hadandawa).  Indigofera spinosa  Forssk.

Semi-desert spinescent woody herb. Root used as chewing stick, as toothache analgesic, and in treating abdominal disorders.


Biproduct of marisa.

Subaq.  Combretum trifoliatum Vent.

A wild tree. Wood used in fumigation.

Sukkar Nabat. Alphenic; sugar candy; white barley sugar.

Imported from Egypt. Mass or powdered with Kohl in treatment. Used in treating eye infection, indigestion, fits, as fumigation ingredient, and an amulet.

Sulaimani. Arsenic.

A poisonous agent used in homicide and suicide.

Surratiya.  Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry.

Imported crude oil of cloves used in massage an perfume.