Rab'a and Irq al-Rab'a.  Trianthema pentandra L. and Zaleya pentandra (L.)Jeffrey.

Prostate pubescent herb. Root (powdered) before use. It is used as emetic, purgative, laxative, in treating gonorrhoea. It is a dangerous drug causing acute nephritis and bloody diarhoea.


Plant's ash dusted over turbid water to purify it It is also dusted over smallpox sores (when Banona wept her brother Amara she wanted him to die in battle shrouded in blood and not with smallpox dusted with ash.) .

Raml. Sand.

Used in dressing wounds.

Ras Al-Qoam.  

Obtained from Jebel Marra area. Used in treating inflammed eyes.

Ras Al-Shayib; Danab Al-Kalb, and Shaiba. Cockscomb; quial grass. Celosia argentea L.

A glabrous weed leaves used as anthelmintic.

Rashad.  Senebiera nilotica (Del.)DC. and Coronopus niloticus (Del.)Spreng.

Local herb and sometimes imported from Egypt. Aromatic seeds added to goats' milk and drunk as a cure for dysentery. Also used as rectal enema, in treating eye disease, skin affections, as stomachic, and anthelmintic.

Rawath Al-Fil. Elephant's dung.

Used in treatment of allergy.

Rawath Baqar. Cow dung.

Usually charred. Used as fumigation ingredient and in dressing wounds.

Rawath Dhan. Sheep dung.

Usually charred. Used as fumigation ingredient and in dressing wounds.

Rawath Jamal. Camel dung.

Usually charred. Used as fumigation ingredient and in dressing wounds.


Clarifying clay soil, obtained from all along Nile valley. Constituents: mainly montmorillonite, plus feldspar, calcite, dolomite, chlorite, and traces of palygorskite, amphibole, mica and kaolinite. Suspension added to turbid water.

Rihan; 'Arwal, and Hadanit (Hadandawa). Basil; Sweet basil. Ocimum hadiense Forssk.; Ocimum basilicum L., and Palicaria undulata (Linn.) C.A. Mey.

A cultivated and wild aromatic plant. Seeds, flowers, leaves, stem, boiled in water and sweetened for jaundice. Also used as carminative, flavouring agent, expectorant, stimulant, in treating allergy, jaundice, and eye infection.

Rijla. Purslane. Portulaca oleracea L.

A succulent herb that grows in the Sudan. Whole young plant used for food and in treating abdominal disorders.


Silver cleansing agent. Used as hair insecticide.

Robe and Laban Rayib (Egypt).  

Sour milk curds produced by spontaneous fermentation of milk, usually stored in si'in (milkskin) and bukhsa (milk gourd); butter is obtained in the process and buttermilk is used for different types of milk sauces, viz. ni'amiya, kurrara etc., or diluted with water and consumed as ghubasha. Spread over turbid water for purification. Used also in treating diarrhoea, as anti-spasmodic, and as beverage.

Rumman. Pomegranate. Punica granatum L.

Fruit and cover used in treating peptic ulcer.

Ruz. Rice. Oryza sativa L.

Grains used for food.