Ma Zamzam.  

Zamzam water, obtained from Zamzam spring inside the Holy Mosque compound in Makka, Saudi Arabia, a popular panacea.


Dark red rock obtained from Soderi. Picked up amongst derelict houses on top of mountains. Constituents: a haematite of sand and clay, Iron Oxide.

Maghar Akhdar.  

Green Ochre obtained from Jebel Kan in Nuba Mountains. Constituents: Green friable lumps of sand and clay, Sodium Chloride, Iron Oxide. Crushed, mixed with sesame oil and used for anointing the body ritually and as a routine.

Mahareb; Hamareb, and Halfa Barr (Egypt). Camel's hay. Cymbopogon proximus (L.)Spreng. and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.)Spreng. subsp. proximus (Hochst.)Maire & Weiller.

A wild desert perennial herb. Leaves, stem and whole plant used  in treating loin pain, as carminative, aromatic, antispasmodic, diuretic and in treating joint pain.

Mahlab.  Hypoestes verticillaris (L.)Soland. ex Roem. & Schultes and Hypoestes cancellate Nees.

Imported from Syria and Egypt. Seeds (decoction), powder rubbed on child's gum or scalp. Used in treating ear diseases, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, as anti-spasmodic, in water purification, as perfume ingredient in massage.


An imported "pot-pourri" scent. Mainly clove and sandal oil.

Manqa. Mango. Mangifera indica L.

Fruit pulp, seed kernels, young leaves and shoots used in treating abdominal disorders.

Maqar Ahmar. Red Ochre.

Obtained from Jebel Urunu, Jebel Kan and Otoro in Nuba Region. Constituents: Red friable lumps of sand and clay, Sodium Chloride, Iron Oxide. Crushed, mixed with sesame oil and used for anointing the body ritually and as a routine.

Mararat Al-Tumsah. Crocodile's bile.

Used to treat eye inflammation.

Mararat Ghazal. Gazelle's bile.

Used to treat eye inflammation.

Mardud.  Unidentified taxonomic name.


Marisa; Baghu; Baqaniya; Bilbil; Bouza; Um-Bilbil; Um-Darbiq, and Darbiq.  

A fermented alcoholic beverage and a staple food for many tribes especially in southern, western and south eastern Sudan. Um-Bilbil is considered a superior kind of marisa, while baqaniya a weak type usually consumed by the pious, being considered non-alcoholic. Brewed at home for family consumption or in Indayas (brew houses), main substrate is dura, characterized by high suspended starch matter. Contents include: B vitamins, 13.3% crude protein, 2.58% ash, 4.5% fat, 2% crude fibre on dry matter basis (H.A. Dirar: 1987). Mushuk is the residue left after marisa is filtered, this is used in animal fattening. The substance of marisa is called kujana and kajna. Marisa is frequently used in intoxicating monkeys before hunting. Daboba is marisa in its first stages when watere is added to sourij. Marisa is often used as drug carrier, diuretic, and in treating gonorrhoea.

Mastica and Mastiki. Mastic; mastic tree; mastic gum.  Pistacia lentiscus L.

A small tree whose resinous part is imported from Egypt and other North African countries. Bark oleoresin, leaves, seeds, fruits are used to treat epigastiric pain, chest complaints, fits, bad breath, toothache analgesic and as chewing gum.

Mekah.  Dobera glabra L.

A local plant used whole for treating swellings.

Mia.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Imported from Eden via Egypt. Mainly used as fumigation ingredient.

Mihaijriya.  Celtis integrifolia Lam.

A large deciduous tree. Bark used in treating abdominal disorders.

Mihaya. Erasure.

Quranic verses written on wooden tablet or china plate in ink or honey.

Milh Ahmar.  

Reddish powdery rock obtained from Um-Gawasir, Soderi and Dongola regions. Constituents: sand and clay, Sodium Chloride, Iron Oxide, Calcium Carbonate. Salts, animal and human food.

Milh Al-Qa'a.  

Earth obtained from Dongola desert and Soderi. Constituents: impure common salt containing considerable potasium, also Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulphate, Calcium Carbonate. Hawawir and Kababish Arabs use it in cooking mulah. Used in treating headache, joints affections, and splenic enlargement.

Milh Al-Qa'ab.  

The earth of Qa'ab al-Laqiya valley west of Dongola in Northern Sudan. Constituents: Qa'ab salt used in treating headache, and joints affections.

Milh Sharshar.  

White crystalline salt obtained from Al-Qar Sharshar near Soderi. Constituents: Sand and Clay, Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulphate. Salts animal and human food in Dar Hamid in Western Sudan.

Milh Ta'am.  

Common salt obtained from Port Sudan.Constituents: Sodium Chloride. Used in food and for preserving fish.

Milh Zaqqoum.  

Suppositories used as anti-inflammatory.

Milqat. Jalap. Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.

Twiner imported from India, Egypt. Seeds recognized as a poison,  laxative, purgative, oxytocic, and in treating sterility.


A popular fermented offals food in Kordofan and Darfur Regions. Animal fat and offals are incubated in an earthenware and left to ferment until foul, then pounded to soft paste and used as such (boiled with beans, or okra, onions, spices etc. to make sauce.

Mishmish. Apricot. Prunus armeniaca L.

Fruit used for food.

Misk. Musk.

Perfume obtained from Musk deer (Moschus Moschiferus). Imported from the Far East. Best types are the Chinese and Tibetan, musk in pods or musk in grain.

Molaita.  Reichardia tingitana (L.)Roth.

Wild herb. Leaves alledged to treat diabetes mellitus.

Molokhiya and Khudra. Jew's mallow. Corchorus olitorius L.

Used in mulah (gravy) either fresh or dried. Stalks, leaves, seeds used in water purification, and as abortifacient.

Moze. Bananas. Musa nana var. Kavendishi and Musa sapientum.

Fruit used for food.

Mulah and Tabikh.  

Gravy, soups or stew. Different dishes are made of meat, vegetables or sour milk, with onions, oil, tomato puree, salted and spiced and served with fresh salad.

Murr and Murr Higazi. Myrrh. Commiphora mukul (Hook. & Stocks)Engl.; Commiphora wightii (Arn.)Bhandari, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees)Engl.

Imported from Hejaz, some species grow in Sudan. Parts used: stem and its gum-resin. Used as fumigation ingredient, in treatment of wounds, gingivitis, swellings, flatulence and colics, as digestive, anti-spasmodic and stomachic.


Marisa biproduct.


Fermented and dried animal small intestines. Pounded and added to boiling water to make sauce.