Kabab sin.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Imported from China via Egypt.


Cosmetic mixture of perfumes and an ingredient in cosmetic fumigation. Constituents: sandal wood, shaff wood, kilait wood, sugar, musk  turki, and a variety or liquid perfumes.

Kabd Al-Ghurab. Crow's liver.

Used in treating eye inflammation.

Kabd Al-Jamal. Camel's liver.

Used in treating dysentry.

Kabd Al-Tumsah. Crocodile's liver.

Used in treating inflammation of the eye.

Kada Gabongre.  

Dark red rock obtained from Nuba Region. Constituents: Haematite of sand and clay, Iron Oxide; crushed, mixed with sesame oil and used for anointing ritually the body of males only.

Kadada (Kordofan); 'Ud al-Kadad; Kidad, and Akagod.  Dichrostachys nutans (Pers.)Benth. and Dichrostachys cinerea (L.)Wight & Arn.

Shrub root imported by Nigerians, or locally imported from Gardud Awlad Himaid. Used as decoction in treating syphilis, leprosy, wounds and as anti-scorpion stings.

Kafar Khushr.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Crushed up in hot water and applied as paste, or inhaled from a hot watery decoction mixed with 'afna. Used in treating gangrine.

Kaff Maryam; Shajarat Al-Khalas, and Shajarat Maryam. Chastity tree; Rose of Jericho. Vitex agnus-castus L. and Anastatica hierochuntica L.

Woody Herb. Dry whole plant or twig, mainly used as an item of sympathetic magic and possibly an oxytocic.

Kafur and Kafur Tayyar. Camphor. Cinnamomum camphora (L.)Presl and Camphora officinarum Bauh.

Imported from India. Mass, always stored with cummin to preserve it. Used as block with Quranic verses written on it. Used in treating mental illness and headache. It is religious healers' favourite as fumigation ingredient.

Kaidu Digla (Nuba Mountains).

Bone balls. Fermented animal vertebrae used as food.

Kajaik (Southern Sudan).  

Fermented fish. Fish cleaned of viscera, salted and sun-dried. Two types known black kajaik (best quality) made of garmout, nuak, humar al-hute, and surta, and white kajaik made of high quality fish -- 'ijil, dabas, bayad, bulti and khiraish.

Kalando (Hadandawa) and Sabbar.  Aloe sinkatiana Reynolds.

Fleshy shrub. Leaves as dried mucilagenous substance and used as laxative and purgative.

Kalliya (Hadandawa).  Coleus barbatus (Andr.)Benth.; Plectranthus barbatus Andr., and Coleus forskohlii (Poir.)Briq.

Fragrant pubescent perennial herb. Leaves as decoction for treating abdominal disorders.

Kalto; Alankuwe; Abu Khameira; Mideka (Baqqara); Eil Hasal (Hadandawa); Um Mideka, and Kalto Kalto.  Ximenia americana L.

Obtained from western Sudan. Root used as in treating gonorrhoea,  penile gangrene, as laxative, purgative, emetic. It is a recognized poison.

Kambu and Shourour.  

Amorphous mass obtained from filtered ashes of burnt qasab (dura stalks) in Sennar and Darfur. In Banda tribe, ash of ulumba, millet stalks and water are added to make salt. Constituents: Potash ash-salt, Potassium Chloride, Potassium Carbonate, Potassium Bicarbonate, Potassium Phosphate, Potassium Chloride, Iron Oxide, Alumina, Calcium Sulphate and Magnesium Sulphate. Seeds are reported to be much esteemed in Kordofan and Cairo. Used in treating headache, as a source for salt, as a laxative, purgative, and in treating wounds, urine infection, and as food.

Karawya and Shabat. Caraway; caraway fruit; caraway seed; dill; Indian dill. Carum carvi L.; Anethum graveolens L., and Peucedanum graveolens (L.)Hiern.

A cultivated biennial herb. Fruits, seeds, oil used as carminative, aromatic, in the treatment of colic and flatulence, joint affections and as lactogenic.

Karib (Hadandawa).  Caralluma retrospiciens (Ehrenb.)N.E.Br. and Desmidorchis retrospiciens Ehrenb. Ehrenb.

Succulent leafless branched herb used whole as decoction in wound treatment.

Karkade and Kororo (Nuba). Red sorrel; Roselle. Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Cultivated annual plant that grows locally. Sepals, seeds and calyces used as decoction or macerate. Used in treating diarrhoea, fever, flatulence, colic, chest complaints, tonsillitis, meningitis, impotence, blood sickness, syphilis, as beverage, anti-cough, tonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, laxative, purgative, and food.


Scented oil. Constituents: Qurunful, mahlab, sandal wood, wadak or wax, oil, surratiya, mahlabiya, majmou', a variety of liquid perfumes. Used as cream for cosmetic skin management.

Karkarab.  Gossypium spp.

Cotton seed powder. Used for surgical dressing of wounds.

Karmadoda; Umm Dueima, and Lugusho (Mandari).  Nauclea latifolia Smith. and Sarcocephalus latifolius.

A food tuber of a tuberous root of a large shrub or small tree. Fruits, root and bark used in treating dysentery, and as tonic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-cough.

Kasbara. Coriander. Coriandrum sativum L.

A cultivated annual aromatic shrub. Fruits and seeds (aromatic) taken with food or as decoction. Used as carminative, spice, aromatic and flavouring agent, stimulant, and in treating joints affections.

Kasiraswil.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root (worn, used as cautery or taken internally), the skin of a waral (large lizard) is commonly used in conjunction to refresh the site of bite before cautery. Used as anti-dote against snake bites.

Kassa (Golo).  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Root used in treating black water fever.

Kassava.  Manihot esculenta.

Grains used for food.

Kawal; Harisha; Qalqal, and Soraib.  Cassia tora sensu auct.; Senna obtusifolia (L.)Irwin & Barneby, and Cassia obtusifolia L.

A wild annual under-shrub made into black powder added to mulah sauce, e.g., waika. A product of Jebel Marra Region that spread all over Sudan and to Ethiopian border. Root, seeds, leaves: (dried, fermented) are used. Plant is rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals viz. Calcium. The fermented leaves even richer- good content of sulfur amino acids, slightly low in lysine, protein content increased from 24% to 30% (H.A.Dirar: 1987). Used as food, meat substitute, coffee additive, diuretic and in treating ringworm.

Khall. Vinegar.

Acetic acid used for preservation and pickling, and in treating cerebrospinal meningitis,  headache, fever, splenic enlargement, and in food.

Khamira.  Colchicum autumnale L.

Imported from Egypt. Mixed with sarsaparilla for old syphilis. Used for leavening, and in treating syphilis.

Khamirat 'Attar.  Colchicum ritchii R.Br.

Imported from Egypt. Rhizome (used with la'ba murra against diabetes, and with butter as tonic). Used in treating diabetes mellitus and as baby tonic.

Khara Hadid.  

Refuse "slag" iron taken from the smelting furnace and made decoction with other drugs. Used in treating syphilis, and as a tonic.

Kharasmi. Worm seed. Unidentified taxonomic name.

Seeds used in treating gonorrhoea.

Khardal. Mustard; mustard seeds. Brassica nigra (L.)Koch; Sinapis nigra L., and Brassica sinapioides Roth.

Seeds of an annual plant cultivated in Sudan.

Khass. Lettuce. Lactuca sativa var longifolia.

Used whole for food.

Khilla and Bizrat Al-Khilla. Visnaga. Ammi visnaga (L.)Lam.

A cultivated annual plant, grows in Sudan. Seeds used in treating burning micturition, loin (renal) pain, as diuretic, and ureteric muscle relaxant.

Khimais Twaira.  

Literally 'five birds'. It is an enriched kisra 'asala. Contents: millet flour, millet malt, sesame (or groundnuts), sugar and salt, eaten with little water added; a common travellers' food in western Sudan.

Khirwi'; Bullas (Hadandawa), and Hurua (Kordofan). Castor oil (seed) plant. Ricinus communis L.

A shrub or tall herb. Seeds (oil), leaves (crushed with water) used in treating guinea worm, and as laxative, purgative, poultice, abortifacient, source of oil, and poison.

Khiyar. Cucumber. Cucumis sativus.


Khiyar Shanbar. Cassia pulp. Cassia fistula L.

An ornamental plant imported from Egypt. Fruit's bulb used to treat joints affections, and as laxative, and purgative.

Khoukh. Peach. Prunus persica.

Fruit used for food.


A northern Sudanese potpourri usually kept in an Indian-made bowl called huq (a polychrome Meccan vessel). Constituents: Mahlab, lemon, kabarait, any available liquid perfumes, sandal wood, musk, dofr, musk turki, zabad, jilad, cloves, cardamom (khumrat habahan). It is an important item in perfume, and massage.

Kilaimidab (Hadandawa).  Linaria sagittata (Poir.)Hook.f.; Antirrhinum sagitatum Poir., and Kickxia heterophylla (Schousb.)Dandy.

Spinescent climbing perennial herb. Whole plant used.

Kirili (Mandari).  Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv.

Leaves used in treating chest complaints and as a marisa additive.

Kirot (Mandari) and Habil.  Combretum fragrans F.Hoffm.; Combretum adenogonium Steud. ex A.Rich., and Combretum multispicatum Engl. & Diels.

A glabrous tree. Bark and root (fumigation) claimed to cleanse a dead person's possessions. Used in treating leprosy and jaundice.


A variety of bread and porridge made of dura and millet 'ajin (fermented dough), mainly thin sheets baked on saj or doka (hot plate) and eaten with mulah or tabikh (sauce, soup, stew), milk, robe (curdled milk). Composition: 14% protein, 1.5% ash, 2.5% crude fibre, 1% sugar on dry matter basis, moisture 50% (H.A. Dirar: 1987). Also used for water purification.

Kisra 'Asala.  

Sweet or honey bread. Whole millet grain milled or querned and made into stiff porridge (kisra hamra). A little millet malt is added and the fermented dough is baked into kisrat kas. This is sun-dried and crumbled into smaller flakes. Eaten after adding water, no salt or sugar; a common travellers' food.

Kisra Baida.  

A fermented millet bread of western Sudan.

Kitir.  Acacia mellifera (Vahl)Benth.

Shrub or tree. Bark and leaves used in treating joints affections.

Kohl. Antimony.

Black antimony eye-liner powder, used cosmetically for edging eyes, for treating eye disease including granular lids, improving eye sight, and staining tattoos and facial scars permenantly black; obtained from India where it is called surma. One variety is called kohl al-malayika (angels'  kohl) or white kohl. Constituents: Antimony Sulphate, possibly also lead sulphate and oxides as adulterants; powdered; mixed with powdered sugar or with zabad malih in treatment; sold raw. Used also in averting the evil eye.

Kong Buoi.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Snake root, used in Diling, Kordofan Region. Root used as an anti-dote against snake bites.

Kowa Kowari.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

A plant used in Herban, Kordofan Region. Possibly root used as anti-dote against snake bites.

Kul.  Unidentified taxonomic name.

Food additive in Sennar and Darfur. Whole herb and flower, burried to rot, beaten up mixed with salt, and added to mullah (stew), used in managing the evil eye.

Kulkul and Ligna (Nigerian).  Bauhinia rufescens Lam.

A local pubescent shrub, also root imported by Nigerians. Leaves, seeds, root (Quranic verses inscribed, boiled and decoction drunk) used in treating leprosy, diabetes mellitus, and as analgesic in toothache.

Kumba and Gambo.  Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal)A.Rich.

Probably introduced by Nigerians from Central African countries, frequently used to adulterate coffee. Pods used as coffee additive and stomachic.

Kumithra. Pear. Pyrus communis.

Fruit used for food.

Kunush.  Unidentified taxonomic name. Imported from Persia. Root (powdered) used in treating syphilis.

Kurdan; Kurdala; Amyok (Dinka); Myook (Dinka), and 'Irq al-Sharba.  Courbonia virgata Brongn.; Courbonia decumbens Brongn., and Maerua pseudopetalosa (Gilg & Bened.)DeWolf.

Root twirled in turbid water until mud settles; when chewed it renders water sweet and cold when drunk; leaves; stem; fruits; frequently consumed during famines. Used as hyena poison, salt source, and emetic.

Kurkum. Turmeric; Curcuma. Curcuma longa L.

A plant with thick rhizomes, imported from India. Rhizome, yellow root used as dye for bride's body care. Lotion gives body yellow colour specially when used with dukhkhan. Used as  spice, cosmetic, and as a favouring, and dying agent, and in treating abdominal disorders, chest complaints, and swellings.

Kurmut and Lasaf. Caper tree. Capparis cartilaginea Decne; Capparis galeata Fresen., and Capparis spinosa L.

Mountainous slopes shrub. Leaves chewed as toothache analgesic, for treatment of eye and gingival infections, and used as a poultice and in purifying water.

Kursan; Mikhkhait, and Shajar Al-Mikhkhait. Assyrian plum. Boscia senegalensis Lam. ex Poir.

A local wild tree whose fruits are frequently consumed during famines. Bark, fruit (berries), leaves, seeds used in treating syphilis, chest complaints, indigestion, bilharzia, joints affections, tuberculosis, in water purification, as poultice, food, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory.