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O'Brien J. Agricultural Labor and Development in Sudan. University of Connecticut; 1980. Ph. D. Thesis.

O'Brien J; Differential high fertility and demographic transitions under peripheral capitalism in Sudan. In: Cordell D, Gregory J, editors. African Population and Capitalism: Historical Perspectives. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press; 1987:173-186.

O'Connor BT. The Girdlestone Tradition: Inauguration of Odrthopaedic and Traumatic Services in the Sudan. Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 1966;38:371-391.

O'Fahey RS. The Sudna papers of the Rev. Dr. A.J. Arkell. Sudan Notes and Records. 1974;55:172-174.

Oan Al-Sharif Qasim. Al-Sudan fi Hayat Al-'Arab wa Adabihim. Majallat Al-Dirasat Al-Sudaniyya. 1968;1:78.

Oan Al-Sharif Qasim; Dirasat fi Al-'Amiyya. Khartoum: Al-Dar Al-Sudaniyya; 1974.

Oan Al-Sharif Qasim; Qamous Al-'Amiyya fi Al-Sudan. Khartoum: Al-Dar Al-Sudaniyya; 1972.

Obeid M, Mahmoud A. Ecological Studies in the Vegetation of the Sudan (2). The Ecological Relationships of the Vegetation of Khartoum Province. Vegetation. 1971;23:177-198.

Obeid M, Mahmoud A. The Vegetation of Khartoum Province. Sudan Notes and Records. 1969;50:134-159.

Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society S. Proceedings of the 3rd Congres: Female Circumcision: 1973; Khartoum.

Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society S. Proceedings of the 7th Congres: Female Circumcision: 1977; Khartoum.

Oesterreich TK; Possession, Demonical and Other. London: Kegan Paul; 1930.

Ogden GW. Some notes on the measurements of time. Sudan Notes and Records. 1950;31:246-253.

Ognyanov IV, El Amin ME, Taranjiska RB, Ivanova BS. A Chemical Study of Fruits of Balanites Aegyptiaca L. from Sudan. Comptes Rendus De L'Academie Bulgare Des Sciences. 1977;30:1121-1124.

Ogunmodelde E. End This Mutilation. People. 1979;6:30-32.

Ohrwalder J; Ten Years Captivity in the Mahadi's Camp (1882-1892). 5th ed. 1892.

Okasha A. A cultural psychiatric study of el-zar cult in U.A.R. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1966;112:1217-21.

Olayinka-Kosa T; Circumcision of women: A strategy for eradication. Zed Books; 1983.

Omar Siddik. Child Rearing Practicces in the Sudan. American University of Beirut; 1968.

Omer MEA, Al Magboul AZ, El Egami AA. Sudanese Plants Used in Folkloric Medicine: Screening for Anti-bacterial Activity, IX. Fitoterapia. 1998;69:542-545.

Omer NM. A Physico-Chemical Study on Gum Arabic From Acacia Senegal (L.) Willd. University of Khartoum; 1996. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Omer SA. Toxic Enterohepatonephropathology in Lohmann Type Broiler Chicks Due to Abrus Precatorius and Cassia Senna. University of Khartoum; 1990. M.V.Sc.

Omer SA. Toxic Enterohepatonephropathology in Lohmann Type Broiler Chicks Due to Abrus Precatorius and Cassia Senna. University of Khartoum; 1990. M.V.Sc.

Omer SA, Ibrahim FH, Sami Ahmad Khalid, Adam SEI. Toxicological Interactions of Abrus Precatorius and Cassia Senna in the Diet of Lohmann Broiler Chicks. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1992;34:310-313.

Omwugeogwu M; The Cult of the Bori Spirit Among the Hausa. In: Douglas M, Kabbery P, Editors. Man in Africa. London: Tavistock Publications; 1969.

Opler MK. Human Organization. 1967;26:193-4.

Opler MK. Zar Ceremonies as Psychotherapy. Human Organization. 1967;26:193-4.

Organization of African Unity.  Addis Ababa; 1990.

Organization of African Unity, Scient. & Tech. Res. Comm. (OAU, STRC). Recommendations. Abidjan, Ivory Coast; 1979.

Ormindale SH; The Luo Girl: From infancy to marriage. London: Macmillan; 1952.

Oslsen A. Removal of Cercariae by Traditional Sudanese Flocculants: Bentonite Clays and Moringa Oleifera Seeds in Comparison to Pure Bentonnite. In. Copenhagen; 1984.

Osman Abd Al-Moneim. Al-'Ilag bi Al-A'shab. Majallat Al-Hayat. 1969;104:5-7.

Osman Al-Hasan Muhammad Nour; Al-Khalawi fi Al-Sudan: Dirasa midaniyya. Khartoum: Ministry of Education; 1976.

Osman BME. The Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on the Growth and Yield of Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) Under Irrigation. University of Khartoum; 1998. M.SC. Agriculture.

Osman Babiker, Yusuf Muhammad. Water Purification in Connection With Sudanese Traditional Way of Water Clarification Using Special Clay Called "Rauwaq". In. Copenhagen; 1980-1981.

Osman Hasan Ahmad. 'Adat Al-Zawaq 'Ind Al-Ingassana. Majallat Al-Khartoum. 1969:50-51.

Osman ME, Williams P, Menzies AR, Phillips GO. Characterization of Commercial Samples of Gum Arabic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1993;41:71-77.

Osman NA. Chemical Variability Among Seed Lots of Local Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.). University of Gezira; 1991. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Osman OH. The Pharmacological and Nutritive Properties of Kawal (Cassia tora). Sudan Medical Journal. 1972;10:40-44.

Osman OH, Ismail M, Salih AM. The Pharmacological and Nutritive Properties of Kawal (Cassia Tora). Sudan Medical Journal. 1972;10:40-44.

Oswald F; Alone in the Sleeping Sickness Country (1866). London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1923.

Otoo SNA.  WHO/EMRO; 1976.

Owen JS. Letter to Beasley, Ina M. 4/3/1947.

Owen JS. Further Notes on Poisonous Snakes. Sudan Notes and Records. 1952;33:311.

Owen JS. Torit Snakes. Sudan Notes and Records. 1956;37:92.

Owen TRH. A Few Cures for Snake Bites. Sudan Notes and Records. 1942;25:137-138.

Owen TRH. Notes on an arab stellar calendar. Sudan Notes and Records. 1933;16:67-71.

Oxfam. Review of Oxfam's Involvement With Traditional Medicine. Health Unit, Oxfam.

Oyler DS Rev. Shilluk notes: Some cermonies connected with electric storms. Sudan Notes and Records. 1926;9:57-68.

Oyler DS Rev. The Shilluk's Belief in the Evil Eye; (ii) The Evil Medicine Man. Sudan Notes and Records. 1919;2:122-137.

Oyler DS Rev. The Shilluk's Beliefs in the Good Medicine Men. Sudan Notes and Records. 1920;3:110-116.