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Mac Donald DR. Civisec Medical. Sudan Central Records Office.

Mac Donald DR. Female Circumcision in the Sudan. Sudan Pamphlets; March 9, 1936; Khartoum. University of Khartoum.

MacDiarmid DN. Notes on Nuba Customs and Language. Sudan Notes and Records. 1927;10:226.

MacDiarmid DN. The Sign of the Cross. Sudan Notes and Records. 1920;3:171.

MacDiarmid DN. The Sign of the Cross. Sudan Notes and Records. 1921;4:188.

MacDiarmid DN. Some Nuba Ideas. Sudan Notes and Records. 1924;7(1):125-126.

Macdonald DB. Aspects of Islam. New York, London: Macmillan Co.; 1911.

Macdonald DB. Emotional Religion in Islam as affected by Music and Singing: being a translation of a book of the Ihya 'Ulum ad-Din of Al-Ghazzali'. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1901-1902.

Mackrell JEC. The Dinka oath on ashes. Sudan Notes and Records. 1942;25:131-134.

MacLeay KNG. Corrections and Amendations to the Flora of the Sudan. Sudan Notes and Records. 1963;44:140.

MacMichael HA; A History of Arabs in the Sudan: and some account of the people who preceded them and of the tribes inhabiting Darfur. 2nd 1967 ed. London: Frak Cass; 1922;2 vol.s.

MacMichael HA. Notes on Gabal Harza. Sudan Notes and Records. 1927;10:61.

Madden JF. The Exhumation of a Latuka Rain Chief. Sudan Notes and Records. 1940;23:351-354.

Magar HRY. Sesquiterpenoids of Cymbopogon Nervatus and Metabolic Fate of Labelled Epoxides. University of Khartoum; 1981. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Magboul. B.I., Mustafa AMI. Baobab Seed Oil. Sudan Journal of Food Science and Technology. 11:15-17.

Magda Osman Abbakar. Acclimatization and Commercial Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Sudan. Medicinal Plants in Arab Countries: November 25, 1997-November 27, 1997.

Mahadi Amin Al-Tom; Bibliography of Undergraduate Dissertations of the Geography of the Sudan 1946-74. Khartoum: University of Khartoum, Faculty of Arts (Geography); 1975.

Mahgoub S. On the Subspecies of Acacia Nilotica in the Sudan. Sudan Silva. 1978;4:57-62.

Mahmoud Abbakar Sulaiman.  Traditional Medicine Research Institute; Undated.

Mahmoud BM, Ali HM, Homeida MMA. Significant Reduction in Chloroquine Bioavailability Following Coadministration with the Sudanese Beverages Aradaib, Karkadeh and Lemon. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1994;33:1005-9.

Mahmoud Beshir. Al-Karama. Majallat Al-Nasir Al-Islamiyya. 1357.

Mahmoud EN. Phytochemical and Chemotaxonomic Studies in the Papilionaceae (Tribe: Zephorosieae) and Sapotaceae. University of Strathclyde (Scotland); 1985. Ph.D. Chemistry.

Mahmoud EN, Sami Ahmad Khalid. 5-ethyldihydroflavosperone, a dihydronaphhthopyran from Guiera Senegalensis. Phytochemistry (UK). 1997;46:793-794.

Mahmoud EN, Waterman PG. Flavonoids from the Stem Bark of Millettia Hemsleyana. Phytochemistry. 1985;24:369-371.

Mahmoud EN, Waterman PG. Flavonoids from the Stem Bark of Millettia Hemsleyana. Phytochemistry. 1985;24:369-371.

Mahmoud Hussein. Al-Idman 'Ala Ta'ati Al-Bangu. Majallat Huna Omdurman. 1955;32:7.

Mahmoud Hussein. Al-Kala azar aw Marad Al-Sa'ied. Majallat Huna Omdurman. 1957;6:6.

Mahmoud I. Yagi, Umar Muhammad Salih. Potato storage in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Food Science and Technnology. 1977;9:1-5.

Mahmoud Muhammad Hasan. Chilhood in the Sudan. In: The Sudan Philosophical Society Proceedings of 15th Annual Conference: 1970; University of Khartoum. page 76.

Mahmoud Muhammad Hasan. Preventive Aspects of Child Health. Al-Hakeem Symposium on Maternity and Child Welfare in the Sudan. 1964;16(13).

Mahmoud Muhammad Taha; Pharaonic Circumcision. Khrtoum: Matbu'at Al-Akhwan Al-Jumhuriyyin; 1981.

Mahmoud OM, Adam SEI, Tartour G. The Effects of Calotropis Procera on Small Ruminants. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1979;89:251-263.

Maimouna Mirghani Hamza. Bibliographia Al-Mahadiya bi Al-Lugha Al-'Arabiyya. Majallat Al-Dirasat Al-Sudaniyya. 1968:121.

Majno G; The Healing Hand: Man and the Wound in the Ancient World. London: Harvard University Press.

Makris GP. A Note on the Early History of the Tumbura Cult of the Sudan. Round Table on Islamic Studies: May, 1988; University of Bergen. Unpublished paper.

Makris GP. Religion, spirit possession, and social change: the case of the tumbura cult. December, 1988; Sudan Studies Society of the UK, University of Durham. Unpublished paper.

Makris GP. Spirit Possession, Religion, and Social Change in an Urban Context: With Special Reference to the Tumbura Spirit Possession Cult in Northern Sudan. London School of Economics; Ph. D. Thesis.

Makris GP, Ahmad Al-Safi; The tumbura spirit possession cult of the Sudan, past and present. Lewis IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, Sayyid Hamid Hurreiz, editors. Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1991:118-136.

Makris GP, Natvig R; The zar, tumbura and bori cults: a select annotated bibliography. Lewis IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, Sayyid Hamid Hurreiz, editors. Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1991:233-282.

Malik B. Badri; Customs, Traditions and Psychopathology: a psycho-logical study on some aspects of Arab Sudanese culture. In. Modern Nation Building. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Philosophical Society of the Sudan; 1971:155-166.

Malouf MK, Senior Medical Officer, Atbara. Notes on Native remedies and surgery in Atbaraarea (in reply to a request by Christopherson, J.B., letter dated 28 March 1908).  University of Durham, University Library, Palace Green Section, Palace Green, Durham, DH1 3RN, England: Durham University Library, Archives and Special Collections (Sudan Archive); 1908407/2/1 1-57.

Mamoun Yusuf. Population Pattern and Public Health. Al-Hakeem Medical Students Journal. 1964;17.

Mamoun Yusuf. A Study of the Vital Statistics, Social and Environmental Conditions of Hag Yusuf Rural Community. Khartoum: University of Khartoum; 1967. M.D. Thesis.

Manfreid Hd; Les Secrets de la mer Ronge, cite' par Stephen-Chauvert: la medicine chez les peuples primitifs. Paris: 1936.

Mangeil THA. Effect of Planting Date, Mineral Fertilization and Water Regimes on Growth and Yield of Sweet Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare, Mill.). University of Khartoum; 1998. M.Sc. Agriculture.

Mansour Ali Haseeb; A Monograph of Bio-medical Research in the Sudan: An Introduction and Bibliography. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press; 1973.

Mansour Ali Haseeb. On the History of Kala-azar in the Sudan. Al-Hakeem Medical Students Journal. 1959;7:39.

Mansour Ali Haseeb. Research in the Sudan. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Philosophical Society of the Sudan: January 3, 1964-January 5, 1964; Khartoum. 1969.

Mansour Ali Haseeb. A Scorpion in Captivity. Sudan Notes and Records. 1951;32:338.

Mansour Ali Haseeb. Some poisonous plants in the Sudan.  Sudan Medical Journal. 1972;10:94-101.

Mariym Rashid. Zar in Kuwait. In: The International Symposium on the Spiritual Dimension of Traditional African Medicine: January 11, 1988-January 13, 1988; Traditional Medicine Research Institue, Institute of African & Asian Studies, Khartoum and International African Institute, London.

Martini G. Impression of Nuba and their Contry in 1875.  Sudan Notes and Records. 1961;42:122-26.

Marwick MG. Anthropologists' Declining Productivity in the Sociology of Witchcraft. American Anthropologist. 1972;74:378-385.

Maschariff J, Medical Officer, Merawi. Notes on Native remedies and surgery in Merawi area (in reply to a request by Christopherson, J.B., letter dated 28 March 1908).  University of Durham, University Library, Palace Green Section, Palace Green, Durham, DH1 3RN, England: Durham University Library, Archives and Special Collections (Sudan Archive); 1908407/2/1 1-57.

Masino C. Sulle Piante Medicinali Dell A.O.I. La Scienza Del Farmaco. 1937;5.

Massey RE. Fish Poison. Sudan Notes and Records. 1919;2:147.

Massey RE. A Note on the Early History of Cotton. Sudan Notes and Records. 1923;6:231-233.

Masucci G. Etnoiatria Etiopica. Rass. Sociale Dell A.I. Maggio. 1940;5-6:404-420.

Matson GA. A Procedure for the Serological Determination of Blood Relationship in Ancient and Modern Peoples with Special Reference to the American Indian: II Blood Grouping in Mummies. Journal of Immunology, Baltimore. 1936;30:459-470.

Maurice GK. The Entry of Relapsing Fever into the Sudan. Sudan Notes and Records. 1932;15:97-118, plates.

Maurice GK. The History of Sleeping Sickness in the Sudan. J. Roy. Army Med. Corps. 1930;55:241.

Maurice GK. The History of Sleeping Sickness in the Sudan. Sudan Notes and Records. 1930;13:211.

May JM, Mclellan DL; The Ecology of Malnutrition in Eastern Africa and Four Countries of Western Africa.  Studies in Medical Geography. Vol 9 ed. New York: Hafner Publishing Co.; 1970.

Maydell HJV. Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel: Their Charteristics and Uses. Eschborn; 1986.

Maydell H-Jv; Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel: Their Characteristics and Uses. Eschborn: GTZ, Federal Republic of Germany; 1986.

McBain M. Letter to Ina M. Beasley. 20/2/1949.

McBain M. 1949 Feb 20.

McCreery R. Moslems and Pagans of the A-E Sudan. Muslim World. 1946:252-60.

McKey D, Waterman PG, Mbi CN, Gartlan JS, Struhsaker TT. Phenolic Content of Vegetation in Two African Rain Forests: Ecological Implications. Science. 1978;202:61-64.

McLean S, Editor.  London: Minority Rights Group; 1980.

McLean S, Graham SE, Editors. Assaad M, Gachukia E, McLean S, et al. London WC2N 5NG: Benjamin Franklin House, 36 Craven St.; 1985.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute.  Khartoum; 1997.

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Research Inistitute, the National Council for Research, Compiler; Medicinal Plants of the Sudan: Part 2: Medicinal Plants of the Eastern Nuba Mountains. Khartoum: 1987.

Meinardus O. Mythological, Historical and Sociological Aspects of the Practice of Female Circumcision Among the Egyptians. Acta Ethnographica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 1967:387-397.

Melly JM. Infibulation. Lancet. 2.

Messing SD. Group Therapy and Social Status in the Zar Cult of Ethiopia. American Anthropologist. 1958;60:1120-7.

Michelmore APG. A Possible Relic of Christianity in Darfur. Sudan Notes and Records. 1932;15:272-273.

Middleton J; Lugbara Religion: Ritual and Authority among an East African People. Washington, D.C.: Smithonian Institution Press; 1960.

Miller G; The Adoption of Inoculation for Smallpox in England and France. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 1957:45-69 (chapter 3).

Mills WL. A Dinka Witchdoctor. Sudan Notes and Records. 1919;2:31-34.

Minces J; The Housse of Obedience Opens Its Doors. London: Zed Press; 1982.

Ministry of Information and Culture. Photographs Achives on Zar.

Modawi BM. Examination of the Terpenoids of Cymbepogon Species. University of Khartoum; 1975. Ph.D. Chemistry.

Modawi BM, Duprey RJH, Al Magboul AZ, El Satti AM. Chemistry of the Sudanese Plants: Constituents of the Essential Oil of Ocimum Bsilicum var. Thyrsiflorom (IV). Fitoterapia. 1984;55:60-62.

Modawi BM, Iskander GM, Abdel Karim M. Steroidal Components in Plants of the Sudan Flora and Seed Germination Effects of With-aobtusifonalide and With-aphysanolide on Eruca Sativum. Fitoterapia. 1985;56:53-55.

Modawi BM, Magar HRY, Satti AM. Chemistry of Sudanese Flora: Cymbopogon Nervatus. Journal of Natural Products. 1984;47:167-169.

Mohamed AA. The Abortive Nature of Momordica Tuberosa (Roxb.) Cogn. University of Khartoum; 1987. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed AB. Effect of Various Levels of Dietary Lupinus Termis and Cucurbita Maxima on Chicks. University of Khartoum; 1992. M.Sc. Veterinary Sciences.

Mohamed AH. Some Pharmacological Aspects of a Peptide Substance Isolated From the Plant Grewia Bicolor. University of Khartoum; 1986. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed AH. Some Pharmacological Aspects of A Peptide Substance Isolated From the Plant Grewia Bicolor. University of Khartoum; 1986. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed AH, Ali MB, Bashir AK, Salih AM. Influence of H. Tuberculatum on the Cardiovascular System. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1996;34:213-217.

Mohamed AH, Karrar A, Salih AM, Bashir MB, Khalid HS, Ali BH. Pharmacological Activities of Grewia Bicolor Roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1990;28:285-292.

Mohamed Ayman M.K. Arkasousi. Relaxation and Religious Incantation and Their Effect on Treating Essential High Blood Pressure. University of Khartoum; 1992. Ph.D. Psychology.

Mohamed Bashir Ali. Pharmacological Extract of Karkade Sepals. Al Uloum. 1994;1:18-19.

Mohamed EM. Investigation of Molluscicidal Activityof Certain Sudanese Plants Used in Folk Medicine: Molluscicidal and Phytochemical Studies on Gardenia Lutea Fresen. University of Khartoum; 1983. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed ES. Herbicides in Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum L.) With Particular Reference to Diosgenin and Protein Yields . University of Bath; 1983. Ph.D.

Mohamed EAME. Biochemical and Nutiritional Studies of Lupin (Lupinus Termis ) Seed Cultivated in the Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1996. M.Sc. Agriculture.

Mohamed HAA. Studies on the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of Striga Hermonthica. University of Khartoum; 1996. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed IS. Phytochemical Studies of Flavonoids From Polygonum Glabrum L. of Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1996. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Mohamed MA. Investigation of Steroidal Components in Withania Obtusifolia and Physalis Angulaa Species. University of Khartoum; 1984. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Mohamed MG. Studies on Antihelminthic Drugs With Particular Emphasis on Albizia Anthelmintica. University of Khartoum; 1987. Ph.D. Veterinary Sciences.

Mohamed MS.  Khartoum; 1996.

Mohamed Nour I. Analysis and Metabolic Studies on Metronidazolem. University of Khartoum; 1991. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamed Osman Abdalla (Shaikh). History of Medicinal Plants. Al Uloum. 1994:29-31.

Mohamed SA. A Study on Some Aspects of Rose Growing in Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1994. M.SC. Agriculture.

Mohamed SI. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Some Cucurbitaceous Plants. University of Khartoum; 1995. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Mohamedain KM. Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Solenostemma Argel (Hargel) Tamarindus Indica (Arabaib) and Azadirachta Indica (Neem Tree) on Brown Hisex Chicks. University of Khartoum; 1991. M.V.Sc.

Mohammed TA, Idris AA. Nutritive Value of Roselle Seed (Hibiscus Subdariffa) Meal for Broiler Chicks. The Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. 1988-1989;8:51-57.

Mohmadain KM, Mohamed OSA, El Badwi SMA, Adam SEI. Effect of Feeding Tamarindus Indica Ripe Fruit in Brown Hisex Chicks. Phytotherapy Research. 1996;10:631-633.

Mohyeldin AE. Study of Some Sudanese Aloe. University of Khartoum; 1992. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Moller-Christensen V, Hughes DR. An Early Case of Leprosy from Nubia. Man. 1966;1:242-3.

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Monteith WN. Sibr Al-Maut at Fungor. Sudan Notes and Records. 1950;31:307-308.

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Mordini A. Stato Attuale Delle Ricerche Etnografiche Cultura Materiale Dell A.O.I. Atti Del 3 Congresso Di Studi Coloniali Firense. 1937;6:149-159.

Moreno MM. Ricette Mediche Abissine. Medicina e Biologia. 1943;2:339-346.

Morgenstern J; Rites of Birth, Marriage, Death and Kindred Occasions among the Semites. Chicago: 1966.

Morris KRS. New Frontiers to Health in Africa. Science. 1960;132:652.

Morsy SA; Spirit possession in Egyptian ethnomedicine: origins, comparison and historical specificity. Lewis IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, Sayyid Hamid Hurreiz, editors. Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1991:189-208.

Mostyn JP. Fung Province: Some notes on Burn customs and belieefs. Sudan Notes and Records. 1920;3:209-215.

Mostyn JP. Some notes on Burun customs and beliefs. Sudan Notes and Records. 1921;4:209-211.

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