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E.F.N.B. Divination. Sudan Notes and Records. 1918;1:135.

E.G.S.H. The Sacred Stone of Furung in Northern Darfur.  Sudan Notes and Records. 1920;3:223.

E.H-Y.  Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines Friend; 19495.

E-Worthy FT. The Evil Eye: An Account of This Ancient and Widespread Superstition. London: John Murray, Albemarle St.; 1895.

Easty DB, Blaedel WJ, Anderson L. Continuous Electrochemical Determination of Cyanide: Application to Cyanogenic Glycosides in Sudan Grass. Analytical Chemistry. 1971;43:509-14.

Echard N; The Hausa bori possession cult in the Ader Region of Niger: its origins and present-day fuction. Lewis IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, Sayyid Hamid Hurreiz, editors. Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1991:64-80.

Edghill K. Traditional Healers. Africa Health. 1978;1(3).

Editor. Hiwar ma' Al-Sikirtair Al-Idari: Al-khitan bi anwa'u. Jaridat Al-Hadara. January 1, 1944.

Editorial. Interview of the Civil Seceretary on Female Circumcision. Majallat Al-Hadara. Central Records Department, Khartoum, Civisec 44/1/1.

Editorial. Photographs Archives on Zar Parties. Sudanow.

Ehrenreich B, English D; Witches, Midwives and Nurses: History of Women Healers. New York, U.S.A.: Feminist Press; 1986.

Eilert U, Wolters B, Nahrstedlt A. The antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala. Planta Medica. 1981;42:55-61.

Eilert U, Wolters B, Nahrstedt A. Antibiotic Principle of Seeds of Moringa Oleifera. Planta Medica. 1980;39:235.

Eilert U, Wolters B, Nahrstedt A. Antibiotic Principle of Seeds of Moringa Oleifera and M. Stnopetala. Planta Medica. 1981;42:55-61.

Eisa EB. Investigation of Alkaloidal Components in the Sudan Flora: Study of C. Farinosa and C. Rotundifolia Species. University of Khartoum; 1983. M.Sc. Chemistry.

Eisenberg L, Kleinman A, Editors; The Relevance of Social Science for Medicine. Hingham, MA: D. Reidel Publishing Co., Old Deerby St..

El Agraa SEI. Ricinus Communis and Ruta Graveolens Toxicoses and Interactions in Nubian Goats. University of Khartoum; 1993. M.Sc. Veterinary Sciences.

El Amin EE. Investigation into the Major Quality-Determining Factors of Karkadeh. University of Gezira; 1994. M.Sc. Chemistry.

El Amin EM. Habat El Mulluk (Croton Spp): a Herbal Remedy for Internal Disease. Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology. 1989;4:107-109.

El Amin HAA. Chemotaxonomy and Antifungal Activity of Eight Euphorbia Species Indigenous to Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1996. M.Sc.  Pharmacy.

El Amin HM. Study of Acacia Albida in Relation to Other Acacias. Sudan Silva. 1977;3:39-49.

El Amin IM. The Iso Enzymes of Glutamine Synthetase in Leguminous Plants. University of Khartoum; 1990. M.Sc.

El Amin KHM. The Industrial Utilization of Guddiem "Grewia Tenax". University of Gezira; 1995. M.Sc. Food Technology.

El Amin SEI. Properties and Chemical Constituents of Fig Sap (Ficus Sycomorus) and Its Use in Treating Oral Fungal Infection in Children at Wad Medani Teaching Hospital. University of Gezira; 1999. M.Sc. Chemistry.

El Awad AA, Abdel Bari EM, Mahmoud OM, Adam SEI. The Effects of Citrullus Colocynthis on Sheep. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1984;26:481-5.

El Badawi SMA. Toxicityof Jatropha Curcas and Ricinus Communis for Broiler Chicks. University of Khartoum; 1990. M.Sc. Veterinary Sciences.

El Badwi SM, Adam SEI. Toxicity Effects of Low Levels of Dietary Jatropha Curcas Seed on Brown Hisex Chicks. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1992;34:112-5.

El Badwi SM, Adam SEI, Hapke HJ. Comparative Toxicity of Ricinus Communis and Jatropha Curcas in  Brown Hisex Chicks. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 1995;102:75-77.

El Badwi SM, Adam SEI, Hapke HJ. Experimaental Ricinus Communis Poisoning in Chicks. Phytotherapy Research. 1992;6:205-208.

El Bashir HZ. Properties of Karkadeh Seed (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Protein Isolate. University of Khartoum; 1994. M.Sc. Agriculture.

El Buluk RE, Babiker EFE, El Tinay AH. Changes in Chemical Composition of Guava Fruits During Development of Ripening. Plant Food for Human Nutrition. 1996;49:147-154.

El Bushra HA, El Tom AR, Tigerman NS. Perceived Causes and Traditional Treatment of Diarrhoea by Mothers in Eastern Sudan. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 1988;8:135-140.

El  Dessogi HI. Phytochemical and Anitmicrobial Investigation of Aloe Sinkatana Reynolds, Aloes of Tropical Africa (1966). University of Khartoum; 1997. M.Sc.  Pharmacy.

El Dirdiri N. The Combined Toxicity of Aristolochia to Goats. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1987;29:133-137.

El Egami AA. Studies on Volatile Oils of Pulicaria Herbs. University of Khartoum; 1989. M.Sc. Agriculture.

El Fatih M, Egami AA, AL Magboul AZ, Omer MEA. Sudanese Plants Used in Folkloric Medicine: Screening for Anti-bacterial Activity, VII. Fitoterapia. 1997;68:549-554.

El Gaddal JA. The Use of Plant Coagulants for Water Treatment in Rural Sudan. University of Surrey; 1993. M.Sc. Engineering.

El Gamal AAA. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Argemone Mexicana L. University of Khartoum; 1995. Ph.D. Pharmacy.

El Hadi FM. The Effect of Presowing Treatment of Acacia Senegal Seeds on Germination and Early Seedling Establishment. Washington State University (USA); 1984. M.Sc. Forestry.

El Hardallou BS. The Bile Acids Binding of the Fibre-rich Fractions of Three Starchy Legumes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1992;42:207-218.

El Hardallou SB. Chemical Characteristics of Legumes Grown in Sudan and Comparative Study on Their Starches. University of Khartoum; 1978. M.Sc.

El Hassan SAM. The Effect of Plucaria Crispa (Forssk) Oliv, (Compositae) on Lymnaea Cailludi and Other Aquatic Lives. University of Khartoum; 1999. M.Sc. Education.

El Hilo EBE. Investigation of Alkaloidal Components in the Suan Flora: Study of Alkaloids of Cadaba Farinosa and C. Rotundifolia Species. University of Khartoum; 1982. M.Sc. Chemistry.

El Imam YMA, Evans WC. Alkaloids of a Datura Candida Cultivar, D. Aurea and Various Hybrids. Fitoterapia. 1990;61:148-152.

El Imam YMA, Evans WC, Haegi G, Ramsey KPA. Secondary Metabolites of Intergeneric Hybrids of the Anthocercideae, family Solanaceae. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1991;29:263-267.

El Imam YMA, Evans WC, Haegi L. Alkaloids of Cyphanthera Myosotidea. Fitoterapia. 1968;57:235-237.

El Kamali HH. Botanical and Chemical Studies on Solenostemma Argel (Del.) Hayne Grown in Khartoum. University of Khartoum; 1991. M.Sc.

El Kamali HH, Ahmed AH, Mohammed AS, Yahia AAM, El Tayeb I, Ali AA. Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oils from Nigella Sativa Seeds (Cymbopogon Citratus) Leaves and Pulicaria Undulata Aerial Parts. Fitoterapia. 1998;69:77-78.

El Kamali HH, El Khalifa KF. Treatment of Malaria Through Herbal Drugs in the Central Sudan. Fitoterapia. 1997;68:527-528.

El Kamali HH, Sami Ahmad Khalid. The Most Common Herbal Remedies in Central Sudan. Fitoterapia. 1996;67:301-306.

El Kamali HH, Sami Ahmad Khalid. The Most Common Herbal Remedies in Dongola Province (Northern Sudan). Fitoterapia. 1998;69:118-121.

El Kheir YM. Investigation of Certain Plants Used in Sudanese Local Medicine. University of Khartoum; 1966. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

El Kheir YM, Bashir AK, Ahmed EM. Phytochemical and Molluscicidal Studies on Gardenia Lutea Fresen. International Symposium of Medicinal Plants, 5th Anti-Infective Agents of Higher Plant Origin: July 13, 1983-July 15, 1983; University of Ife, Nigeria.

El Kheir YM, El Tohami MS. Investigation of Molluscicidal Activity of Cetrain Sudanese Plants Used in Folk Medicine (I). A Preliminary Biological Screening for Molluscicidal Activity of Certain Sudanese Plants Used in Folk Medicine. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1979;82:237-241.

El Kheir YM, El Tohami MS. Investigation of Molluscicidal Activity of Cetrain Sudanese Plants Used in Folk Medicine (II). Molluscicidal Activity of the Different Morphological Organs of Gnidia Kraussiana Meisn "Abu Gotna" Family: Thymelaeaceae. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1979;82:242-247.

El Kheir YM, El Tohami MS. Investigation of Molluscicidal Activity of Cetrain Sudanese Plants Used in Folk Medicine in Macro and Micromorphology of the Leaf, Stem, and Root of Gnidia Kraussiana Meisn. Journal of African Medicinal Plants. 1980;3:57-71.

El Kheir YM, Mahmoud MI, Hakim HA. Stability of Cannabis Preparation on Storage. Fitoterapia. 1986;57:235-237.

El Kheir YM, Salih AM. Investigation of the Nature of the Molluscicidal factor of Croton Macrostachys. Journal of African Medicinal Plants. 1979;2:55-58.

El Kheir YM, Salih MH. Investigation of Certain Plants Used in Sudanese Folk Medicine. Fitoterapia. 1980;51:143-147.

El Kheir YM, Salih MH. Investigation of Certain Plants Used in Sudanese Folk Medicine. Journal of African Medicinal Plants. 1982;5:247-266.

El Khidir OA, Gumaa AY, Fangali OAI, Badir NA, Khidir OAE. The Use of Balanites Kernel Cake in a Diet for Fattening Sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 1983;9:301-306.

El Nadeef MAI. Biochemical Studies on Local Varieties of Sesame Seeds. University of Khartoum; 1990. M.Sc. Botany.

El Nasri M, Karib EA. The Adjuvant Action of Some Oil on Dried Pleuropneumonia Organisms. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. 1961;2:184-186.

El Sayed NY. Studies on the Two Genera Cassia L. and Jatropha L. University of Khartoum; 1981. M.Sc. Botany.

El Sayed NY, Abdel Bari EM, Mahmoud OM, Adam SEI. The Toxicity of Cassia Senna to Nubian Goats. Veterinary Quarterly. 1983;5:80-85.

El Sheikh EA. Some Notes on Acacia Seyal Del. var. Seyal Brenan "talh". Sudan Silva. 1987;6:14-24.

El Sheikh HA, Ali BH, Homeida AM, Hassan T, Idris OF, Hapke HJ. The Activities of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Goats Treated Orally with the Latex of Calotropis Procera and the Influence of Dieldrin Pre-treatment. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1991;104:257-268.

El Sheikh MOA. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Tertiary Alkaloides From the Root of Thalitremminus Race C. University of Ohio (USA); 1985. Ph.D. Pharmacy.

El Sheikh MOA. Some Solanaceous Medicinal Plant As Possible Cash Crop for the Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1974. M.Sc. Agricultrue.

El Sheikh MOA, El Hassan GM, El Tayeb AR, Abdalla AA, Antoun MD. Studies on Sudanese Medicinal Plants III: Indigenous Hyoscyamus Muticus as Possible Commercial Source for Hyoscyamine. Planta Medica. 1982;45:116-119.

El  Sheikh SH. Toxicity of Certain Sudanese Plant Extracts to the Different Stages of Schistosoma Mansoni (Gezira Strain, Sudan). University of Khartoum; 1987. M.Sc.  Zoology.

El Siddig IM. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies on the Plant Hyphaene Thebaica (Sudan); 1996.

El Taher ZMA. The Effect of Foliar Fertilizers on Growth Yield Oil and Mineral Contents of Spear Mint. University of Khartoum; 1999. M.Sc. Education.

El Tahir A, Satti GMH, Sami Ahmad Khalid. Antiplasmoidal Activity of Selected Sudanese Medicinal Plants with Emphasis on Maytenus Senegalensis. Conference of Medicinal Plants and Herbs in the Arab World: November 25, 1997-November 27, 1997; Khartoum.

El Tahir A, Satti GMH, Sami Ahmad Khalid., Theander TG, Kharazmi A, Ibrahim AM. The Potential of Antileishmanial Activity of some Sudanese Medicineal Plants. Conference on Medicinal Plants and Herbs in the Arab World: November 25, 1997-November 27, 1997; Khartoum.

El Tahir KEA. Pharmacological Action of Magnoflorine and Aristolochic Acid-1 Isolated from the Seeds of Aristolochia Bracteata. 1991;29:1-11.

El Tahir KEA, Ageel AM. Effect of the Volatile Oil of Nigella Sativa on the Arterial Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of the Guinea Pig. Saudi Pharmacological Journal. 1994;2:163-168.

El Tahir KEA, Ageel AM, Mekkawi AG, Bashir AK, Mossa JS, Sami Ahmad Khalid. Pharmacological Actions of the Leaves of Solenostemma Argel (Hayne): Spasmolytic and Uterine Relaxant Activities. International Journal of Crude Drug Research. 1987;25:57-63.

El Tahir KEA, Ahsour MMS, Al Harbi MM. The Cardiovascular Action of the Volatile Oil of the Black Seed Nigella Sativa in Rats: Elucidation of the Mechanism of Action. General Pharmacology. 1993;24:1123-131.

El Tahir KEA, Hamad EA, Ageel AM, Abu Nasif AM, Gad Karim EA. Effects of Sesame and Liver Oil on Prostacyctin Synthesis by Rat Theoracee Aorta. Archive International Pharmacodyn. 1988;292:182-188.

El Tahir KEH, Al Tahir AY, Ageel AM. Pharmacological Studies on Sesame and Nigella Sativa Fixed Oil. Effect on the Sensitivities of the Adreniceptors, platelets and the Uterus of the Rat. Saudi Pharmacological Journal. 1999;7.

El Tahir KEH, Ashour MMS, Al Harbi MM. The Respiratory Effects of the Volatile Oil of the Black Seed Nigella Sativa in Guinea Pigs: Elucidation of the Mechanism of Action. General Pharmacology. 1993;24:1115-1122.

El Tahir KEH, El Sarag MSA, Ageel AM. The Pharmacology of Honey Bee Products: 1. Actions of Propolis on Rat Arterial Blood Pressure, Respiratory Systems and Some Smooth Muscles. Saudi Pharmacological Journal. 1996;4:157-164.

El Tayeb ME. Studies of Some Aromatic Plants Growing in the Sudan. University of Khartoum; 1985. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

El Tinay AH, El Shafie AS, El Nour AA. A Chemical Study of Pumpkin Pectic Substances. Tripical Science. 1982;24:173-183.

El Tinay AH, Mahgoub SO, Mohamed BI, Hamad MA. Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of Legumes Grown in Sudan. Journal of Food Compsition and Analysis. 1989;2:69-78.

El Tohami MS. Molluscicidal Activity of Certain Sudanese Medicinal Plants. University of Khartoum; 1979. M.Sc. Pharmacy.

Ellen Ismail; Bukra, Insha' Allah: a look into Sudanese culture. 3rd. ed. Germany: 1988.

Ellen Ismail, Maureen Makki; Women of the Sudan. Germany: 1990.

Elliot Smith G. The Alledged Discovery of Syphilis in Pre-historic Aegyptians. Lancet. 1907;2:1788-1789.

Elliot Smith G. The Alledged Discovery of Syphilis in Prehistoric Aegyptians. Lancet. 1908;2:521-524.

Elliot Smith G, Dawson WF. Egyptian Mummies. New York:  1934.

Elliot Smith G, Wood Jones F.  Report for 1907-8. Cairo; 19102.

Ellis ES; Ancient anodynes, primitive anaesthesia and allies ... Heinmann; 1946.

Emin Pasha. Shweinfurth G, Ratzel F, Felkin RW, Hartlaub G, Editor, Annotator. London: George Philip; 1888.

Ensor H. The Advent of Craw-Craw in the Sudan. J. Roy. Army Med. Corps. 1908;10:140.

Ensor H. The Treatment of Kala-Azar by Senega. J. Roy. Army Med. Corps. 1909;13:667.

Epstein BS. The Occurrence of Parietal Thinness with Post menopausal Senile Idiopathic Osteoporosis. Radiology. 1953;60(1):29-35.

Erich Martini; "Globale Verbreitung der Lanse-Ruckfall-fieber," Welt-Seuchen-Atlas. Ernest Rodenwaldt, EditorHamburg: 1956;11:53-54.

Erwa HH. Bacterial flora of zeer water. In: Annual Conference of the Philosophical Society of the Sudan Proceedings, Khartoum: 1977; 150-153.

Evans JTR. Burial alive among the Bahr Al-ghazal Province. Sudan Notes and Records. 1925;18:196.

Evans JTR. Some Nuer Terms in relation to the human body. Sudan Notes and Records. 1935;18(1).

Evans JTR, Evans-Pritchard EE. The Nuer. Oxford: Faber and Faber; 1940.

Evans JTR, Evans-Pritchard EE. The Nuer Tribe and Clan.  Sudan Notes and Records. 1933;16(1).

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Evans-Pritchard EE; Bibliography of Nilotic Tribes. In: Butt A, Editor. The Nilotes of the A-E Sudan and Uganda. 1952.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Burial and Mortuary Rites of the Nuer. African Affairs. 1949;48.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Cannibalism: A Zande Text. Africa. 1956;26(1):20-47, 73-74.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Customs and beliefs relating to twins among the Nilotic Nuer. Uganda Journal. 1936;3.

Evans-Pritchard EE. He Bongo. Sudan Notes and Records. 1928;12:1-61.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Heredity and Gestation, as the Azande see them. Sociologus. 1932.

Evans-Pritchard EE. The Mberidi (Shiluk group) and the Mbegumba (Basiri Group) of the Bahr el-Ghazal. Sudan Notes and Records. 1931;14(2):15-48.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. A note on Ingessana marriage customs. Sudan Notes and Records. 1933;16:307-313.

Evans-Pritchard EE. A Note on Nuer Prayers. Man. 1952;140:99-102.

Evans-Pritchard EE. A Note on Some Zande Physiological Notions. Sudan Notes and Records. 1970;51:162-165.

Evans-Pritchard EE. The Nuer Conception of Spirit in its Relation to the Social Order. American Anthropologist. 1953;55(2(1)):201-214.

Evans-Pritchard EE. The Nuer family. Sudan Notes and Records. 1948;31:21-42.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1956.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. Oracle-Magic of the Azande. Sudan Notes and Records. 1928;11(1):1-28.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. Social Anthropolgy. Sudan Notes and Records. 1951;32:Reviews, T.H.B. Mynors p 345.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. Some Features and Forms of Nuer Sacrifices. Africa. 1951;21(2):112-121.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. Theories of Primitive Religion. London: Clarendon Press; 1965.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Twins, Birds and Vegetables. Man. 1966;1:398-9.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Witchcraft. Africa. 1935;8:417-22.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Witchcraft (Mangu) Among the Azande. Sudan Notes and Records. 1929;12(2):163-?

Evans-Pritchard EE; Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1937.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Zande Cannibalism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 1960;90.

Evans-Pritchard EE; Zande Cannibalism. In. The Position of Women in Primitive Societies and Other Essays in Social Anthropology. London: Faber; 1965.

Evans-Pritchard EE. The Zande Corporation of Witch-Doctors. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 1932;62:291-336.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Zande Notions About Death, Soul and Ghost. Sudan Notes and Records. 169;50:41-52.

Evans-Pritchard EE. Zande Theology. Sudan Notes and Records. 1936;19(1):5-46.

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Evans-Pritchard EE. Zande Totems. Man. 1956;56:107-9.

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